Topic – The Lithosphere
By the end of this unit, you should be able to:
- Identify and describe the major layers of the Earth
- Determine the controlling factors, temperature and pressure in the formation of the earth’s layers
- Summarize the possible causes of the earth’s magnetic field and reversals
- Evaluate the evidence in support of continental drift and summarize the theory of plate tectonics
- List and describe three causes of plate movement and identify how movements of tectonic plates change Earth’s topography
- Evaluate the evidence for seafloor spreading
- Identify the three types of plate boundaries
- Summarize how movements of tectonic plates have influenced ecosystems
- Analyze the role of boundary type in the formation of folds, faults and mountains
- Compare and contrast the three main types of seismic waves
- Determine the structure and composition of Earth’s interior by evaluating the behavior of seismic waves
- Differentiate between earthquake magnitude and intensity and describe the scales used to measure each
- Analyze why earthquakes usually occur along plate boundaries
- Describe the economic and social impacts of earthquakes
- Describe the conditions under which magma can form and differentiate between lava and magma
- Compare and contrast the different kinds of magma
- Compare and contrast shield cone, cinder cones, and composite volcanoes including the factors that lead to the formation of each
- Describe how hot spot volcanoes are formed
- Construct a framework to illustrate how new volcanic activity of a long-dormant system can impact the social, economic, and political domains of a nearby community
- Distinguish between weathering and erosion
- Compare and contrast mechanical and chemical weathering
- Identify the variables that affect the rate of weathering
- Analyze the impact of living and nonliving things on the processes of weathering and erosion
- Describe the relationship of gravity to all agents of erosion
- Describe how soil forms
- Explain the relationship between the organic can inorganic components of soil
- Identify soil characteristics
- Recognize soil horizons in a soil profile
- Describe how glaciers modify the landscape
- Identify landscape features that result from the processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition
- Describe how objects are dated by the use of selected radioactive elements
- Discuss how fossil evidence and radiometric dating techniques support the theory of evolution
- Describe the processes of radioactivity and radioactive decay and their relationship to isotopes
- Distinguish absolute dating techniques from relative dating techniques
- Apply the radiometric dating techniques to carbon based life forms when interpreting absolute age
- Explain the concept of half-life and calculate rates of radioactive decay
- Interpret a half-life graph
This is what you are responsible for learning:
Layers of the Earth
Discovery of the Layers
Theory of Plate Tectonics
Effects of Plate Movement
Why Earthquakes Happen
Anatomy of Earthquakes
Relationship to Plate Tectonics
Earthquakes Away From Plate Boundaries
Earthquakes and Society
Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics
Types of Volcanoes
Predicting Volcanic Eruptions
Landscape Features as a result of Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition
Characteristics of Rocks
The Rock Cycle
Rocks and the Earth’s Crust
Isotopes and Radioactivity Relationships
This is what you must do:
- Use this website to take notes on the layers of Earth. Be sure to answer the four questions at the end.
- This site explains how we know what’s inside the Earth!
- On this website there is a good discussion of density differences between types of crust and the concept of isostasy. Be sure to take notes!
- Where does the Earth gets its internal energy? This site will explain. Take notes!
- This article explains the source of the Earth’s magnetic field. Did you know it flips occasionally? This is what a flip looks like.
- Earth’s crust is broken into pieces and they move. Go to this site to take notes on the history of Plate Tectonic Theory , Be sure to write down a summary of the theory and the mechanisms that drive the tectonic plates. Specifically, explain how mid-ocean ridges demonstrate geomagnetic anomalies,
- Use this site to define the following terms: mantle convection, ridge push, and slab pull .
- Summarize the 13 points on this page to explain seafloor spreading. Then answer the four questions at the bottom of the page.
- Use the first section of this article (Configuration of the Continents) to explain how movement of the tectonic plates can affect changes in climate.
- Research how mountains are formed. Create a digital presentation of your findings. CREDIT
- Do this online lab about plate tectonics. Get the hard copy of the lab paper from Ms. Rinald. CREDIT.
- Use this site to take notes on the Elastic Rebound Theory.
- Here is another site that explains the Elastic Rebound Theory. This one has an animation!
- Use this site to explain the 3 types of seismic waves.
- Differentiate between earthquake magnitude and intensity and describe the scales used to measure both. This site should help.
- Use this worksheet and view this slideshow to explain the damages caused by earthquakes. CREDIT
- What factors indicate an area is at risk of an earthquake? Explain. Theanswers to the questions at the bottom of the page should be in your explanation.
- How does magma form? What characteristics determine the type of magma? Use this site to help you answer these questions.
- What is a “volcanic zone”? Explain. Use this site for help.
- Here’s a view of a mid-oceanic ridge as it spreads apart.
- What happens when a volcano does NOT erupt? Use this site to take notes on Intrusive Volcanism.
- This site describes the 6 main types of volcanoes and the characteristics of their eruptions. Summarize the types and explain the causes of the different types of eruptions. CREDIT
- Use this site to describe domes and calderas. Then use this site to describe the different types of pyroclastic material.
- View this presentation and then explain how volcanic eruptions can be “predicted”.
- Use this website to take notes on the three main types of weathering (5.1 – 5.3).
- Use this website to determine the agents of erosion. Take notes.
- How does soil form? This site will help.
- What’s a mineral? Discuss the physical and chemical characteristics of minerals. CREDIT
- Rocks and minerals are NOT the same. Explain the difference. Be sure to include a discussion of how the different types of rocks form.
- Produce a visual representation of the rock cycle using the information on this site. CREDIT
- Describe how objects are dated by the use of radioactive elements.
- Explain absolute and relative age dating, and distinguish one from the other.
- Do this half-life lab. Ask Ms. Rinald for the hard-copy of the lab paper. CREDIT
- Rock ID - Site 1, Site 2, Site 3